The information stated below should be used as a guideline to attenuate injuries associated with play ground equipment. However, it is believed that these recommendations, along with the technical information in the ASTM Standards for Public Playgrounds will contribute to greater play ground safety 안전놀이터.
What is a Public Play ground?
A public play ground refers to one designed to supply by children ages a few months through 12 years in commercial child care facilities, institutions, multiple family homes, parks, restaurants, resorts and schools.
Information in this article:
General play ground safety considerations
Play ground materials and appearing
Identifying specific play ground hazards and how to prevent them
Proper steps needed to maintain a play ground and its’ equipment
The use of platforms, guardrails and protective barriers to attenuate unintentional falls
There are 7 key factors you should keep in mind when installation of your play ground:
Accessibility: The surface material needs to allow access to the apparatus for children with ailments.
Age Parting: Areas for different age brackets should be separated by a stream zone. This zone will reduce the chance of injury by children of varying activity levels running into each other.
Age group: Different playgrounds are structured for different age brackets. The safety requirements differ with each age group. Keep an eye on this group which will be using the play ground and buy accordingly.
Conflicting Activities: The play ground should be organized into sections to prevent injury from overlapping activities. Be sure to place shifts and merry-go-rounds toward a corner, side or edge of a play area. Power point sides should not be put in a overloaded area.
Experience Lines: Visual barriers should be minimized so that caregivers, parents or supervisors can keep track of children using the play ground. Benches placed around the not in the structure allow onlookers a place to sit while they watch the family.
Signage and/or Labels: Signs should be provided to give the users guidance regarding the age appropriateness of the equipment, as well as how to properly use the equipment.
Direction: Make sure the manager understands the basic safety guidelines of the equipment.
When choosing a site for a play ground, there are a few factors that are important take into consideration:
Travel patterns to and from the play ground: Any kind of hazards in how? If so, clear the hazards.
Nearby accessibility hazards (traffic, bodies of water, steep slopes, etc. ): Could a child inadvertently or intentionally run into a nearby threat? If so, provide a solution to contain children within the play ground (fence, hedge). Realize that the boundary or hedge should still allow declaration by supervisors.
Sun exposure: Is the sun’s heat sufficient enough to heat metal parts, power point sides, platforms, steps or appearing enough to burn children? Will users be exposed to the sunlight during the most intense organ of the day? If so, consider positioning it so the bare metal is in the shade. Provide safety measures that the equipment will be hot in the sunlight. Consider shade providing the play ground with a shade structure.
Slope and drainage: Will loose fill material wash away in the rain? If so, consider proper drainage to prevent wash outs.
When installing a play ground, use equipment and hardware approved by the manufacturer. Follow the instructions EXTREMELY carefully or hire a play ground installer. Be sure you keep all materials from the manufacturer and start a meticulous record of all examinations and maintenance. Thoroughly inspect the apparatus before the first use, including the hardware.
Creosote-treated wood (railroad ties, telephone posts, etc) and coatings that have pesticides should not be used.
Chromated Copper mineral Arsenate (CCA) was an old chemical that was used to treat wood, including wooden playgrounds. Since 2001, botox cosmetic injections is no longer safe it could corrode certain materials faster than others.
Avoid bare metal for platforms, power point sides or steps. In direct sunlight, bare metal can become extremely hot and cause contact burn injuries. Use plastic sprayed metal, plastic or wood. Within the play ground with a shelter is always the best option. When coating existing bare metal or using plastic sprayed metal, consider:
Manufacturer should ensure that users cannot eat, air or absorb potentially hazardous amounts of chemical chemicals as a result of contact.
All paints should fulfill the CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission) regulation for lead paint.
Painted surfaces should be maintained regularly to prevent rust and rust.
Things to check regarding hardware:
All fasteners, connectors and coverings should not be detachable without the use of tools.
All exposed hardware should be smooth to the user to prevent lacerations, penetrations, or cloth entanglement hazards.
Hardware in moving joints should be secured against accidental or unauthorized loosening.
All hardware should be corrosive resistant.
Bearings or bushings used in moving joints should be self-lubricating or easy to lubricate.
All S-hooks and C-hooks should be closed (no distance or space greater than 0. 04″).
A proper play ground surface is one of the most important factors in reducing injuries that occur when kids fall from equipment. The surface under the play ground equipment should be soft enough and thick enough to ease the impact of a child’s fall. Lawn and dirt are not recommended for appearing material because of water and natural weathering which can occur at a drastic rate. There are two kinds of appearing material: unitary and loose-fill.
Unitary materials are generally ASTM tested plastic exercise mats or a pour-in-place energy ingesting material. These kinds of appearing options are perfect for toddlers and handicap accessible playgrounds and are usually more expensive than loose-fill materials.
CCA treated wood mulch, rock or dirt are not acceptable forms of loose-fill material.
Loose fill materials will shrink at least 25% over time due to use and weathering so it is a good idea to fill the utilization zone with an increase of than the recommended fill level. For example, if the play ground will require 9 inches tall of wood chips then the initial fill level should be 12 inches tall.
Any material tested to ASTM F1292, including unitary surfaces, manufactured wood fiber, etc.
Shredded/recycled plastic mulch
Wood mulch (not CCA-treated)
When choosing play ground equipment, it is important that you keep in mind what the intended age group will be. Children of different ages and levels of development have different needs and abilities. Playgrounds are created to encourage a child’s imagination while developing new skills. If you are selecting a play ground for a school or public park, you should check your california’s guidelines on integrating handicap accessible play structures in the play ground.
Some equipment is not recommended for public playgrounds including: trampolines, wife swapping entrances, giant strides, climbing basics that are not secured at both ends, piece of string shifts or rock shifts. Equipment such as platforms, moved platforms, guardrails and barriers, handrails, and methods for access and egress from play equipment have different guidelines for the different age brackets (toddlers, preschool, and school age). It is important to understand that guardrails are not intended for toddlers as it is easy for them to crawl through.
It is easier for a child to climb up than it is for them to climb down. Be sure you provide various methods to access and egress from the play structure so different skill levels will feel safe using the equipment.
There are 6 main kinds of play ground hazards:
Smash and Shear Points: Smash and shear points can be caused by parts moving relative together, or even a fixed part, during a normal use cycle, such as with a seesaw. To determine if there is a smash or shear point, consider: the reality a child could easily get a body part inside the point and the closing force around the point.
Entanglement and Impalement: Drawstrings on hoods of jackets, sweatshirts, and other chest muscles clothing can become entangled in play ground equipment, and can cause death by strangulation. To avoid this, remove any basics, dog leashes, or similar objects attached to play ground equipment and prevent equipment with basics that are not secured at both ends. Projections on play ground equipment should not be able to entangle children’s clothing nor whenever they be large enough to impale.
Entrapment: Head entrapment can happen feet first or head first. Openings can present an entrapment threat if the distance between any interior opponent’s surfaces is greater than 3. 5 inches tall and less than 9 inches tall. Children can become entrapped by partly bound openings, such as those formed by two or more play ground parts. To attenuate entrapment hazards of moved platforms, infill should be used to reduce the space between moved platforms.
Sharp Points, Corners and Edges: Any sharp edge or point can cause serious lacerations. To avoid the risk of injury make sure that wood parts are smooth and not splintering, all corners are circular and all metal edges are thrown or have circular capping.
Stopped Hazards: Stopped components should be placed away from high traffic areas, vibrant colored and may not trap back on themselves.
Tripping: Playgrounds should get rid any tripping hazards such as rapid changes in height, anchoring devices and containment walls for loose-fill appearing.
All play ground areas should be scrutinized for excessive wear, destruction and any potential hazards. For each piece of equipment, the frequency of thorough examinations will depend on the sort and age of the equipment, the amount of use and the local climate. To help ensure your loose-fill appearing level stays sufficient and is not displaced, it must be checked frequently and raked back into its proper place if necessary. When examining loose-fill appearing materials, pay particular awareness of areas under shifts and at slide making a profit, pooled water on mulch appearing and areas of frozen appearing.
Records of the following should always be stored:
Accidents or injuries
Platforms should be generally flat with openings that allow for drainage. A moved platform must have an access component if the difference between platforms is 12″ for toddlers or 18″ for school-age users. Access to platforms over 6 feet high (except for free standing slides) should provide an intermediate standing surface so your child can now pause and make a decision to keep going or find another way down.
Guardrails and protective barriers are used to attenuate it is likely that unintentional falls from elevated platforms, however; protective barriers provide greater protection for children. Guardrails should be tall enough to protect the tallest child from falling extraordinary and low enough that the smallest child cannot walk under it. Barriers are not needed if it will restrict the intended use of the apparatus, such as climbing equipment.
Guardrails or protective barriers should be provided on the following:
There are several things to consider when choosing the perfect play ground for any outdoor area. The above information are the basic safety regulations to help children happen to be and from the play ground, to spot any potential hazards near your play area and what barriers on the unit will interrupt the distinct experience of those supervising the family at play.